Coin Community Family of Web Sites
Like us on Facebook! Subscribe to our Youtube Channel! Check out our Twitter! Check out our Pinterest!
Username:
Password:
Save Password
Forgot your Password?


Welcome Guest! Need help? Got a question? Inherit some coins?
Our coin forum is completely free! Register Now!

Portraits Of Power - The Faces Of Imperial Rome

First page | Previous Page | Next Page | Last 15 Replies
 
To participate in the forum you must log in or register.
Author Previous TopicReplies: 134 / Views: 7,483Next Topic
Page: of 9
Pillar of the Community
Learn More...
United States
6018 Posts
 Posted 02/28/2020  01:18 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Finn235 to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Finally filled a few holes I was waiting on, time to get this thread up and running again!

Chapter V: 193 AD - The Year of Five Emperors


Pertinax, 1 January - 28 March 193



AR Denarius
IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, Laureate bust right
PROVID DEOR COS II, Providentia standing left

Born in 126 to a freed slave, Pertinax began his political career by enlisting in the army. He served in the Parthian war under Lucius Verus, where he distinguished himself and rose through the ranks quickly, being admitted into the Senatorial class and serving as Procurator of Dacia. He fought in the Marcomannic wars in the late 160s, and was granted a consulship with Didius Julianus in 175. Thereafter, he was granted the governorship of Moesia, Dacia, Syria, and Britain in turn. His political career was rocky throughout the 180s, as he was well-known both for his capable command, and his strict disciplinarian style. After serving as proconsul of Africa from 188-189, Pertinax was made the Prefect of Rome in 190, and shared the consulship with Commodus in 192.

Commodus was assassinated on the night of New Year's Eve of 192, and Pertinax was declared emperor the following morning. He was warmly received by the people and senatorial class, but he was disgusted by the state of the Praetorian Guard, who had stopped behaving like soldiers and started behaving like aristocracy. They were pampered, lazy, and spoiled--Pertinax resolved to whip them back into shape. He slashed their accession bonus, used the savings to increase the fineness of the denarius back to 87%, and stalled as long as he could in actually paying them, ultimately selling off his predecessor's estates for funds. Discontent among the Praetorians grew rapidly, and Pertinax survived a coup attempt in early March 193. Finally, on 28 March 193, as many as three hundred disgruntled Praetorians stormed the imperial palace, meeting no resistance as the palace guard also considered themselves underpaid. Although he had the opportunity to flee and regroup with more loyal forces, Pertinax instead chose to meet and attempt to negotiate with the Praetorians. Negotiations failed, and Pertinax was cut down by his own guard, having reigned only 87 days. He was 67 years old.
My Collections:
Roman Imperial
http://goccf.com/t/348979
Japan Type set Tokugawa + Modern
http://goccf.com/t/348999
Indo Sassanian
http://goccf.com/t/322087
Pillar of the Community
Learn More...
United States
6018 Posts
 Posted 02/28/2020  01:49 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Finn235 to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Didius Julianus, 28 March - 1 June 193


AR Denarius
IMP CAES M DID IVLIAN AVG, Laureate bust right
CONCORD MILIT, Concordia standing between two army standards

Born in 133 to an illustrious and old Patrician family, Didius Julianus fast-tracked his way to prominence when his family sent him to live with and study under Domitia Lucilla, the biological mother of Marcus Aurelius. He entered politics at an early age, and distinguished himself at the head of a legion in Mogontiacum against a barbarian invasion in 167, and was granted the governorship of that province, and then Africa. He served as consul in 175 alongside Pertinax. He fell from grace with Commodus (reportedly for attempting to stir up trouble) and was exiled to Mediolanum for a time, but later acquitted of all charges. He was in Rome attending a banquet on 28 March 193 when emperor Pertinax was murdered by his disaffected Praetorian guard. He received word that the now leaderless Praetorians were holding a public auction, promising to bestow the Principate on the highest bidder. Urged on by his wife, he ran at once to the gates of the Praetorian camp, and, despite being denied entry, began to shout loudly his bids, seeking to outbid his own father in law, Sulpicianus. He ultimately won the nomination after promising every soldier in the Praetorian guard an exorbitant sum of 25,000 sesterces. The Praetorians hailed him as Imperator, and marched with him on the Senate, where he gave a speech and was ratified by the fearful senators, including the historian Cassius Dio.

While fear kept the Senators in line, the populace was not afraid to voice their displeasure, openly shouting insults at Julianus whenever he appeared in public. A riot broke out and the common citizens of Rome armed themselves and gathered in the Circus Maximus, where they invoked the gods to send Pescennius Niger to liberate them from Julianus. After a day they dispersed, but their sentiment remained bitter. Word of the accession quickly spread throughout the provinces, and three men were declared emperor simultaneously - Septimius Severus, Clodius Albinus, and Pescennius Niger. Severus was the closest to Rome and in the best position to strike, so, reaching a peace treaty with Albinus, began his march. Hearing of this, Julianus attempted to send spies to stir up rebellion from within Severus' legions and assassins to kill him, but all of his agents defected. Julianus began to fortify his position within Rome, recalling all the soldiers he could muster and began drilling the Praetorians, who, to his shock and disgust, were so pampered under Commodus that they did not even know how to drill. The public drew great entertainment watching the hopeless guard, whose war-elephants refused to follow commands and threw off their riders. As Severus entered Italy without resistance, Didius Julianus in desperation begged first to share the Principate, and then to be allowed to abdicate. Severus promised amnesty to the bulk of the Praetorian guard if they surrendered the murderers of Pertinax and Julianus himself, and was welcomed into Rome unopposed. On June 1 the Senate declared Julianus a public enemy, and members of the Praetorian arrived in the palace to put him to death. His only words were, "But what evil have I done? Whom have I killed?" He was beheaded on the spot, and his body later given to his wife and daughter. Julianus was 60 years old, and had reigned only 65 days, the shortest confirmed reign of any "true" Roman emperor.
My Collections:
Roman Imperial
http://goccf.com/t/348979
Japan Type set Tokugawa + Modern
http://goccf.com/t/348999
Indo Sassanian
http://goccf.com/t/322087
Pillar of the Community
Learn More...
United States
6018 Posts
 Posted 02/28/2020  02:03 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Finn235 to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Manlia Scantilla, Wife of Didius Julianus, Died mid-193



AR Denarius
MANL SCANTILLA AVG, Draped bust right
IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter, peacock at feet

Very little is known of Didius Julianus' wife. Her name suggests descent from the illustrious gens Manlia. Cassius Dio relates that she was the one who urged her husband to submit his bids for the Purple, despite the fact that her husband was bidding against her own father, Sulpicianus. Julianus bestowed the title of Augusta to Manlia Scantilla and their daughter Didia Clara upon his ascention on March 28.

No detail survives of her short tenure as empress of Rome. When her husband was killed, Septimius Severus allowed her to give a proper cremation to her husband. She and her daughter were stripped of their titles, and Manlia Scantilla died of natural causes about a month after her husband.
My Collections:
Roman Imperial
http://goccf.com/t/348979
Japan Type set Tokugawa + Modern
http://goccf.com/t/348999
Indo Sassanian
http://goccf.com/t/322087
Edited by Finn235
02/28/2020 02:04 am
Pillar of the Community
Learn More...
United States
6018 Posts
 Posted 02/28/2020  02:08 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Finn235 to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Didia Clara, Daughter of Didius Julianus, fate unknown



AR Denarius
DIDIA CLARA AVG, Draped bust right
HILAR TEMPOR, Hilaritas standing left, holding palm and cornucopiae

Didia Clara was the adult daughter of Didius Julianus, roughly 40 years old when her father purchased the title of Augustus from the Praetorian Guard on March 28, 193 following the assasination of Pertinax. Said to be one of the most beautiful women in the empire, no historical sources mention her in any detail. She was given in marriage to the urban Prefect, Sextus Cornelius Repentinus, to solidify her father's position. Julianus however was murdered on June 1 of the same year, upon the arrival of Septimius Severus. Clara's mother, Manlia Scantilla, died about a month later of natural causes. Clara and her husband were spared, and retired to obscurity.
My Collections:
Roman Imperial
http://goccf.com/t/348979
Japan Type set Tokugawa + Modern
http://goccf.com/t/348999
Indo Sassanian
http://goccf.com/t/322087
Pillar of the Community
Learn More...
Spain
2084 Posts
 Posted 02/28/2020  4:06 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Palouche to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Great coins Steve!.....Really enjoying this thread...

These are the rulers that can sting your pocket!.. so well done on acquiring them...

Love the little write ups packed full of info/history..

Would really like to know what happened to Didia Clara though?

Keep em coming...Paul
Pillar of the Community
United States
5334 Posts
 Posted 02/28/2020  4:09 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Bob L to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply

Quote:
Great coins Steve!.....Really enjoying this thread...Love the little write ups


Ditto!
Pillar of the Community
Learn More...
United States
6018 Posts
 Posted 02/28/2020  5:04 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Finn235 to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Thanks all! It feels good to finally have these gaps filled, although even problem coins for this single year ended up being about 1/4 of the value of my *entire* Roman collection! This was not a cheap endeavor...
My Collections:
Roman Imperial
http://goccf.com/t/348979
Japan Type set Tokugawa + Modern
http://goccf.com/t/348999
Indo Sassanian
http://goccf.com/t/322087
Pillar of the Community
Learn More...
United States
6018 Posts
 Posted 03/02/2020  11:01 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Finn235 to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Pescennius Niger, Unsuccessful Claimant April 193 - May 194



AR Denarius
IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVS AVG COS II, Laureate head rignt
BONI EVENTVS, Bonus Eventus standing left, holding bowl of fruits and ears of wheat

Born in the late 130s to an equestrian family, most of Niger's early career was likely expunged following his failed war against Severus. He is known to have held a suffect consulship under Commodus in the 180s (exact date lost) and he was stationed as the legate of Syria in 191. Cassius Dio paints him as a violent and simple man, but nevertheless popular with the citizens of the empire.

When news came of the assassination of Pertinax and subsequent auctioning of the Principate to Julianus, Niger was pressed by popular demand into claiming the purple himself. In what was perhaps his fatal error, he deemed it more important to rally the support of the eastern provinces than to beat Severus to Rome. Although Niger was successful in gaining the loyalty of the East, he was only able to muster six legions to his war, whereas Severus had sixteen. Despite some initial tactical victories, Niger was driven to first abandon his base at Byzantium, then at Nicaea by December 193. He turned down an offer by Severus to surrender and go into exile and pressed on, even as his cities switched allegiance. Niger was finally defeated outside of Antioch in May 194 and was captured while attempting to flee to Parthia. He was summarily executed and his head sent back to Rome, where his wife, children, and all of his political supporters were put to death. Despite the news of their emperor's death, Byzantium refused to surrender and held out until early 195 and was razed to the ground as punishment.
My Collections:
Roman Imperial
http://goccf.com/t/348979
Japan Type set Tokugawa + Modern
http://goccf.com/t/348999
Indo Sassanian
http://goccf.com/t/322087
Pillar of the Community
United States
756 Posts
 Posted 03/02/2020  9:06 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add travelcoin to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Steve, you "jumped the shark" on these coins. I hope to someday reach that level of collecting, but for now, I'll keep on filling in the affordable gaps in my collection. When that is done, maybe the kids will be out of the house and life may slow down a little (probably not) and I will pursue the coins you have so shared with us.
P.S. Your write ups are the best.
Pillar of the Community
Learn More...
United States
6018 Posts
 Posted 03/11/2020  12:19 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Finn235 to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Thanks! Glad this thread is still being enjoyed
My Collections:
Roman Imperial
http://goccf.com/t/348979
Japan Type set Tokugawa + Modern
http://goccf.com/t/348999
Indo Sassanian
http://goccf.com/t/322087
Pillar of the Community
Learn More...
United States
6018 Posts
 Posted 03/11/2020  12:30 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Finn235 to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Clodius Albinus
Unsuccessful Claimant, April 193 (briefly, no coins)
Caesar under Septimius Severus April 193 - Late 196
Usurper v. Septimius Severus Late 196 - February 197


Caesar Under Severus

AR Denarius
D CL SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head right
PROVID AVG COS, Providentia standing left
Rome Mint, 193 AD

As Usurper

AR Denarius
IMP CAES D CLO ALBIN AVG, Laureate head right
GEN LVG COS II, Genius of Lugdunum standing left
Lugdunum mint, early 197

Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus was born about the year 150 to a prestigious and old family in Roman Africa. It was said he was given the name "Albinus" because he was impressively pale. He came to prominence as a young general when he proved instrumental in defeating the usurper Avidus Cassius against the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Aurelius was deeply appreciative of his actions, and under Commodus he was given control of legions in Gaul and later Britannia. Albinus was not fond of Commodus, and was only spared of being stripped of his command when the latter was assasinated.

In the civil war that followed the unstable rule of Julianus, Albinus was one of three men declared emperor by the troops. Realizing that he could not reach Rome in time to solidify his cliam, he allied with Septimius Severus, accepting the title of Caesar, and the two waged war on Pescennius Niger in Syria. They were victorious in 196, over a year after Niger himself had been killed. Severus soon revealed his intent to create a dynasty out of his family, elevating his son Antoninus Pius (Caracalla) as his successor. Albinus narrowly escaped assassination and retreated to Lugdunum where he was hailed as emperor in the fall (possibly November) of 196. He mustered the ~150,000 troops loyal to him, and prepared to make a last stand. He met Severus in a pitched battle on February 19, 197, and was defeated. He probably died on the battlefield, aged about 47.

Severus had the body of Clodius Albinus stripped and laid on the ground before him, then trampled it with his horse. He ordered Lugdunum plundered for harboring the usurper, then ordered Albinus' wife and children hunted down, beheaded and thrown into a river. Albinus' body was beheaded, and his head rode back to Rome on a pike.
My Collections:
Roman Imperial
http://goccf.com/t/348979
Japan Type set Tokugawa + Modern
http://goccf.com/t/348999
Indo Sassanian
http://goccf.com/t/322087
Pillar of the Community
Learn More...
United States
6018 Posts
 Posted 07/19/2020  10:54 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Finn235 to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Septimius Severus 193 - 211

Early Reign

AR Denarius
IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate bust right
VIRT AVG T R POT COS, Virtus standing left, holding Victory and spear
Rome mint, mid-193


AE Sestertius
L SEPT SEV PERT IMP VIII, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
P M TR P IIII COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Rome mint, AD 196

Middle Reign
(The workmanship improves dramatically and he opted to drop PERT from his titles)


AR Denarius
SEVERVS PIVS AVG, Laureate bust right
PART MAX P M TR P VIIII, Trophy with Parthian captives below
Rome mint, AD 201

Late Reign


AR Denarius
SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate bust right
P M TR P XVIII COS III P P, Neptune standing left, holding trident
Rome mint, AD 210

Posthumous


AR Denarius
DIVO SEVERO PIO, bare-headed bust right
CONSECRATIO, Funeral Pyre
Minted 211 AD or later, by Caracalla and/or Geta

Born in 145 in Roman Africa, Septimius Severus was the last Roman emperor to have lived during the reign of Antoninus Pius. He hailed from an old equestrian family of relatively humble origins. He moved to Rome in 162 and was admitted into the senatorial ranks, as two of his cousins had previously served as Consul under Pius. Reaching the required minimum age to serve as Quaestor in 169, Severus went through an accelerated political career thanks in large part to the Antonine Plague, which vacated seats in Rome almost as fast as they could be filled. Following a childless marriage to a woman named Marciana, Severus began to seek the hand of Julia Domna, daughter of the Emesan high priest of Elagabal, of whom it was foretold that she would marry a king. They had two children, the future emperors Caracalla and Geta, in 188 and 189.

Severus was serving in Pannonia as governor in the early 190s, and was there when he learned of the death of Commodus, the short reign of Pertinax, and the accession of Didius Julianus. As Julianus' reputation was universally poor, the legions under Severus' command proclaimed him emperor. Learning that Albinus and Niger had concurrently been proclaimed emperor as well, Severus formed a pact to take on Albinus as his Caesar and heir-apparent (Albinus was in Britain, and too remote to march on Rome himself) and the two took on Niger, who fell in 194, although his rebellious legions persisted until 196, backed by Parthia and its vassals. With Niger gone, the tensions between Severus and Albinus erupted, and Severus then named his own son, the future Caracalla, as Caesar, in effect stripping Albinus of any legal claim to the purple. Albinus then rebelled from his base in Lugdunum, and was defeated and killed in early 197. Regrouping in Rome, Severus then turned his attention to the East, launching a punitive campaign against Parthia for the support it had given to Niger. He succeeded in sacking the capital at Ctesiphon in 198 and reclaimed much of the territory that had been won by Trajan nearly a century before.

Following his Parthian campaign, Severus restored a measure of peace to the city of Rome, although his rule was far from being as harmonious as that of any of the Five Good Emperors. He was well liked by the armies, whom he compensated generously for their loyalty and support. The public tolerated him inasmuch as he kept them distracted with games and plentiful food and drink. The Senate and other aristocrats however came to despise their emperor, who was seen as nothing more than a military dictator. Many were put to death, perhaps most famously Plautianus, his own uncle, formerly trusted ally and Praetorian Prefect, and the father of his daughter in law Plautilla.

While Severus enjoyed long stretches of peace during his reign, increased raids on Roman Africa led him to personally oversee a campaign that lasted from 202-203 to stabilize the region and conquer the offending tribes. Finally fed up with the Caledonian raids on the northern portions of Britannia, Severus took some 40,000 troops into Britain in 208 with the aim of conquering the entire island. Prepared to crush the enemy in open battle, the Romans instead were lured deeper and deeper into Caledonian territory until, their supply line strained to its limits by efforts to make the marshes passable, they were ambushed and sustained heavy losses. Sometime during this campaign, Severus fell gravely ill, but pressed on, determined to see his campaign to conclusion. His condition worsening, Severus fell back to York, where he died in early 211, aged 65.
My Collections:
Roman Imperial
http://goccf.com/t/348979
Japan Type set Tokugawa + Modern
http://goccf.com/t/348999
Indo Sassanian
http://goccf.com/t/322087
Pillar of the Community
Learn More...
United States
6018 Posts
 Posted 07/20/2020  01:43 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Finn235 to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Julia Domna, Wife of Septimius Severus
Augusta 193 - 211
Pia Felix with Caracalla and Geta, 211 - 217


As Augusta

(I started with one, but couldn't help myself! They are so cheap and so pretty!)


AR Denarius
IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
FORTVNAE FELICI, Fortuna seated left, holding cornucopia and rudder, child at feet



AR Denarius
IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
PIETAS PVBLICA, Pietas standing slightly left, hands raised, burning altar at feet


AR Denarius
IVLIA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
SAECVLI FELICITAS, Isis, standing right on prow of ship, holding infant Horus

As Pia Felix, "Faithful Friend" to her son(s)


AR Denarius
IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, Draped bust right
MAT AVGG MAT SEN M PATR, Domna, as Cybele, seated left, holding branch and scepter
(This is one of the only types certainly attributable to the joint rule of her sons, February - December 211)



AR Antoninianus
IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, Draped bust right on crescent, wearing stephane
VENVS GENETRIX, Venus seated left, holding scepter, right hand extended

Born in about 160, Julia Domna hailed from the royal family of Emesa, who had long been high priests of the Syrian sun god Elagabal. A soothsayer had foretold that she would marry a man who would one day become a king, and so the up-and-coming politician Septimius Severus sought her out, and received her hand in marriage. Like the Faustinas before her, Domna was cherished and valued by her husband. She was described as well-learned, intelligent, charismatic, and strong-willed; all virtues her husband valued in her. To the extent socially and legally acceptable at the time, she was very nearly equal to her husband, and later helped him administer the affairs of state. She bore Severus two sons, Lucius Septimius Bassianus (Caracalla) in 188 and Publius Septimius Geta in 189. She was granted the title of Augusta in 193 upon her husband's accession, and stuck close to his side, coming with him on nearly all of his campaigns. Like Faustina Minor, Domna was granted the honorific Mater Castrorum, or Mother of the Camp, in addition to Mater Augustorum (Mother of the Emperor(s)) and Mater Patriae (Mother of the Fatherland).

She was widowed when Severus died in 211, and tried in vain to mediate between her two hateful sons. Her son Geta was murdered in front of her by his brother Caracalla on December 26 211, and Domna was thereafter forced to live with what her son had done. Although she did not hold the title of Augusta following the death of her husband, she was granted the title Pia Felix, and retained her other titles. During her son's reign, she primarily resided in Rome to keep affairs in order while Caracalla was away on campaign. Caracalla was assassinated in 217 by a disgruntled soldier at the machinations of his praetorian prefect, Macrinus. Macrinus attempted to force her into exile, but Domna, now suffering from advanced breast cancer, chose to starve herself to death in early or mid 218. She was about 58 years old.
My Collections:
Roman Imperial
http://goccf.com/t/348979
Japan Type set Tokugawa + Modern
http://goccf.com/t/348999
Indo Sassanian
http://goccf.com/t/322087
Pillar of the Community
United States
5334 Posts
 Posted 07/20/2020  07:30 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Bob L to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Worth the long wait for an update! Wonderful set of coins, Steve, and - as usual - great, informative write-up's. The portraits on so many issues of Septimius Severus are fantastic, such as that deeply toned late reign example of yours. And, regarding the Julia Domna's, I am always fascinated by the renditions of her hair. It seems that the die engravers must have enjoyed doing the do's.
Pillar of the Community
Learn More...
Spain
2084 Posts
 Posted 07/20/2020  11:09 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Palouche to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
with Bob, I always come away having learnt something new from your write ups Steve Thanks.
Nice set of coins, I particularly like the Neptune reverse and the Posthumous types of Septimius Severus but these seem to be difficult to acquire cheaply?.

Here's my couple..
Page: of 9 Previous TopicReplies: 134 / Views: 7,483Next Topic  
 
To participate in the forum you must log in or register.



Disclaimer: While a tremendous amount of effort goes into ensuring the accuracy of the information contained in this site, Coin Community assumes no liability for errors. Copyright 2005 - 2020 Coin Community Family- all rights reserved worldwide. Use of any images or content on this website without prior written permission of Coin Community or the original lender is strictly prohibited.
Contact Us  |  Advertise Here  |  Privacy Policy / Terms of Use

Coin Community Forum © 2005 - 2020 Coin Community Forums
It took 1.12 seconds to rattle this change. Powered By: Snitz Forums 2000 Version 3.4.05