Wallace Gorgon portrait!
There is an interesting back story to this little coin from Halikarnassos (Halikarnassus) in Caria. It was minted during the Hekatomnid Dynasty when it was part of the Persian Empire. Hecatomnus, who founded the dynasty had three sons, Mausolus, Idrieus and Pixodarus, all of whom succeeded him, and two daughters, Artemisia and Ada, who were married to their brothers Mausolus and Idrieus.
Various sites give different years for Hecatomnus taking the kingship, but the following would appear to be the correct succession time line:
Hecatomnus c 395-377 BC; Mausolus c 377-353 BC; Artemisia II c 353-351 BC; Idrieus c 351-344 BC; Ada c 344-340 BC; Pixodarus c 340-335 BC; Ada c 334-326 BC.
According to tradition, Dorian colonists from Troezen settled at Halikarnassos early in the Iron Age. After the Persian conquest in the 6th century BC, Halikarnassos was ruled by a Carian dynasty centred at Mylasa. By the 5th century BC, however, it had come under the cultural influence of Ionia to the north and no longer belonged to the Dorian Hexapolis. In 480 BC Queen Artemisia I, of Carian and Greek descent, personally led her forces on the side of the Persians at the battle of Salamis and was one of Xerxes' most trusted advisers. Halikarnassos again came under Persian control after the King's Peace of 386 BC.
In the 4th century BC Halikarnassos was a well fortified large city arranged in amphitheatre form around its natural harbour, and was enclosed by over 5 km of fortification walls . The city was laid out on a grid with major streets leading north from the harbour to the heights of the acropolis. The harbour was enclosed by moles and a canal led to a second, secret harbour which is believed to have been to the east of the main harbour.
Mausolus became satrap and king of Caria in 377 BC and was one of the most notable of the Carian rulers. He moved the capital of Caria from Mylasa to Halikarnassos on the north shore of the gulf of Kos, commenced a huge building programme, extended and strengthened the borders of Carian territory and began a program to Hellenize his subjects. After the death of Mausolus in 353 BC, his wife-sister, Artemisia II, completed his tomb and defeated the city of Rhodes.
An artist's impression of Mausolus' tomb seen at Worldhistory org.
Halikarnassos is most noted for the tomb of Mausolus (Mausoleum) which was enhanced by the leading Greek sculptors of the century and was considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Halikarnassos was also the birthplace of Herodotus, the "Father of History" and the historian Dionysius.
When Alexander the Great entered Caria in 334 BC, the exiled Ada, who was in possession of the fortress of Alinda, surrendered the fortress to him. Halikarnassos was one of the few Anatolian cities to resist the advance of Alexander, and after taking Halicarnassus, he handed back the government of the whole of Caria to Ada. Ada, in turn, formally adopted Alexander as her son, ensuring that the rule of Caria passed unconditionally to him upon her eventual death.
Caria, Halikarnassos. Hemiobol. 400-340 BC
Obverse: Head of ram right. Reverse: Young male head right (Apollo?), Carian legend S-A across fields. Silver. Diameter: 7 mm. Weight: 0.5 gr.
Reference: SNG Kayhan 996; SNG Keckman 873; SNG Helsinki 873