your 1-4 are good assessments for a general type coin. they are not necessarily good assessments for what represents a desirable large cent to the advanced large cent collector. some of the more desirable cent varieties were manufactured with poor centering or poor strike and only exist that way. the manufacturing was quite inconsistent.
this is S-237. its an R-2. it a fairly common variety that comes nice. a great variety to target if you are looking for a type coin.
wide date and large berries on the reverse.
this is an XF details coin to me. there is some noticeable flattening of the hair above the eye on the forehead. too much to hit au imo. its been cleaned and poorly recolored (this coin could be improved by someone with experience who knew how to fix the damage a previous owner did to it). I would eac grade it at net 15 or so. not a bad coin at all. also not at the level that you are referencing with your examples.
the example of the 1798 ex naftzger/reynolds coin is one where the provenance is demanding a premium. fair or not you cant really compare a normal large cent to a condition census one from the naftzger set. the naftzger set is one of the greatest large cent collections ever assembled. reyonlds 1798s are also a well regarded set. people pay a premium to get into coins with that kind of history. that s-184 is (i think) the 4th finest known for the variety and second finest available to collectors. (there are 3 uncirculated copies two of which belong to the ANA
that is a solid coin and one that I think many people would be proud to own.
here is my S-237. its also been cleaned an recolored. it also used to belong to tom reynolds. I grade mine EAC 25 net 15. I would expect a VF30-35 strait grade on this coin. its been cleaned and recolored though so they should details it.
I collect low grade large cents. I currently have >230 Sheldon varieties and >235 middle date Newcomb varieties.