First notice the affected area? Is it on the centers of the devices, or on the outside edges of the devices? Why does this make a difference? Well Machine Doubling
is always see on the outside or inside of devices. Hub doubling is seen on the centers of the devices. On your coin the outside edge on liberty is shoved towards the center. So the outside edge is where the damage happened by the machine. Also note the overall size of the devices are normal in size. On a doubled die, the devices will be enlarged in the center and can be taller or wider than normal devices.
Note on this coin, I was directing the attention on this area. Note the left side of the devices are pushed aside. Also note the contour of the devices on the left, are flattened or altered on just that one area. On the image below, look at the centers? You can see where the devices are enlarged, because of the hub doubling They will be wider/taller depending on the type of doubling. Also note the closed devices, the 'B' and the 'R'? Note they are smaller than normal because of the devices being made taller on this doubled die. But on the normal coin with the Machine Doubling
, the centers of these are normal in size. Just the one side is affected, altering the contour of the coin.
What is contour? This allows the full design to be seen on the devices. Most often because of light it will start at the top and turn darker before it reaches the fields. Can you see that on the lower image, the DDO
? Now look at the top image I posted on Liberty. You see light, but because of the lack of contour (caused by Machine Doubling
) there is not fading of light? That is what I mean by removal of contour. The shape is altered and doesn't look normal.
Note on these proof coins:
Note the lighter color at the tops of the devices, then it darkens towards the base and the fields are a different color. Light makes the contour stand out.
Note the light spread of color on these devices:
The top one is a normal proof coin and the lower one is a doubled die. Note the centers. We see the light, but on the DDO
, were see spread of two sets of hub on these devices. A line in the center is where the two hub processes is showing the DDO
. This doubling can be weaker or stronger on doubled dies. Because the direction of the spread and how it affect different areas of the devices. But mahcine doubling is not like that at all.
Note on this coin. The whole coin is showing a push in a single direction because of Machine Doubling
. It all happens at once. It affects differently the devices because of the locations. But on this coin it is in a single direction. But does this happen on doubled dies as well?
Note all 4 are the big DDO
for 1969-S Note the enlarging of the devices on the date. But no hub doubling on the mintmark. (the mintmark is added to the die in a separate process) But note the yellow arrows. That is where this doubled die is affected by Machine Doubling
. Note on these coins they direction is the same on each strike. But also note that the MD is not always the same. On the doubled dies, the doubling is the same strike after strike. The Machine Doubling
is caused by the machine, the doubled die is caused by doubling on the die.
So what have we learned. That Machine Doubling
affects coins in the same pattern:
1. Often in a single direction (but not always) but affects the devices on the outside/inside areas of the devices.
2. The devices on a MD coin will have the contour removed. With the contour removed, the devices are pushed or flattened, leaving the devices altered. (This flattening will also reflect causing glare that is seen in images, and hides the MD for others trying to see what is being reported)
3. On Machine Doubling
the devices are not enlarged. Actually the centers of the devices are thinned, reduced by the MD.
4. Machine Doubling
can be different from strike to strike.
while these are interesting to find, they are usually the last thing noticed on a coin. If there was a doubled die, it would have been spotted first thing because of the enlarging of the devices. MD is often found later when you have not found a doubled die and you keep looking and lastly see the Machine Doubling
. So look for the enlarging of the devices, and stop after you do not see it. Move on to the next coin. CoopHome
: Machine doublings, hub doubling and what is contour on coins devices?