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Coins Of India - Indian Coins Of Ghaznavi Sultans

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 Posted 04/07/2018  03:51 am Show Profile   Bookmark this topic Add drnsreedhar to your friends list Get a Link to this Message
Relevance of Ghaznavi Sultans in Indian history
It is generally believed that Mahmud of Ghazni returned from India altogether after his attacks. Next prominent invader is Muhammad bin Sam alias Muhammad Ghori who retained Qutb ud din Aibak in India as his Governor. Aibak is assigned the title "Founder of Muslim rule in India".

But a closer look into contemporary history says a different story. Mahmud of Ghazni returned from India, but he retained a good bit of Indian territory extending into the present day Kashmir, Punjab and Rajastan.It included Sind and Baluchistan areas also. Successors of Mahmud held most of these areas. In the fag end of their dynastic reign, Lahore remained their capital.

This thread is on a few Indian coins, issued by Ghaznavi rulers. Most of these coins have been posted in another thread on "Bull and horseman coins", except the last ruler's coins that are different in their pattern. It is because I believe that Ghaznavids ruled parts of India that I am posting them as Sultanate coins under the title "Coins of India". For this same reason, I am inclined to believe that it is Mahmud of Ghazna who paved way to Muslim rule in India.

ORIGIN - Alaptagin who was a provincial ruler in the Khwarezmian empire managed to assign sovereignty by annexing some adjacent areas. His son-in-law and successor Sabuktagin attacked Indian territories around Punjab. His son Mahmud (of Ghazni) came far more into India. He was followed by his sons and grand sons. Rule of this lineage ended with Khusrau Malik in 1186.AD.

LINEAGE -
Mahmud - 998-1030.AD
Muhammad - first reign - 1030.AD
Masud-I - 1030-1041.AD
Muhammad - second reign - 1041.AD
Maudud - 1041-1048.AD
Masud-II - 1048.AD
Ali - 1048-1049.AD
Abd ul Rashid - 1049-1052.AD
1052-1053.AD - Interregnum by Toghral
Farukhzad - 1053-1059.AD
Ibrahim - 1059-1099.AD
Masud-III - 1099-1115.AD
Shirzad - 1115-1116.AD
Malik Arsalan - 1116-1117.AD
Bahram - 1117-1157.AD
Khusrau shah - 1157-1160.AD
Khusrau Malik - 1160-1186.AD
He lost to Muhammad Ghori and thus Ghaznavid rule in India came to an end.

COINS in GENERAL - Coins of Indian origin of all the Ghaznavids have a common pattern on their billon coins except for the last ruler, Khusrau Malik. On the reverse, there is a recumbent bull to left with legend "Samanta deva" in nagari script above. On the obverse side, the name and titles of the ruler are seen. On some early coins, there is legend around a circle enveloping a three, four or five line legend on the obverse. On the issues of the last ruler Khusaru Malik, both sides bear legend. Mahmud had billon, silver and gold issues. Some early rulers issued silver coins. The coins shown here are in billon with varying silver content and weigh 3.1 to 3.5Gms.

Abd ul Rashid (1049-1052)

He was a son of MAHMUD Ghazni.
He took the throne from Ali, but was unable to hold it for long due to attack from the Mamluk Sultan, Toghral.





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 Posted 04/08/2018  03:57 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add drnsreedhar to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Jamal ud Daula Farukhzad (1053-1059)

Son of Masud I, the first son of Mahmud.He ruled for about six years before he died and was succeeded by Ibrahim, one of his brothers.





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 Posted 04/08/2018  06:35 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Palouche to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Looking forward to following another informative and interesting thread drnsreedhar..

Paul
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 Posted 04/09/2018  01:33 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add drnsreedhar to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Thank you Paul.
I am trying to gather as much info as possible. Unfortunately, I am still not much successful to get sufficient literature on Indian occupations of Ghaznavis.
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 Posted 04/09/2018  02:08 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add drnsreedhar to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Nazir ud daula Ibrahim (1059-1099)

Ibrahim had a long reign of around forty years. He invaded further into India from where Mahmud had left.
He was succeded by his son Masud III.







The visible three lines of the legend reads " al azam - abu al muzaffir - Ibrahim shah"
Edited by drnsreedhar
04/09/2018 02:09 am
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 Posted 04/09/2018  02:12 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add drnsreedhar to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Another coin of Ibrahim, where "abu al muzaffir" part of the legend is better visible.


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 Posted 04/09/2018  02:30 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add drnsreedhar to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Another better condition coin of Ibrahim where the first line of the five line legend is clear " al azam".


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 Posted 04/09/2018  04:08 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Kushanshah to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
This last coin is interesting, if I may make a suggestion. The word in the top line is unusual, read by Deyell as saif (="sword"), his no. 97 (Tye 103.3). However I can't find any reference to saif (...al-dawla or al-din?) as one of Ibrahim's titles. The typical word in this position is 'adl (="just"). The word al-a'zam ("very great/ mighty") is in the 3rd line: saif / al-sultan / al-a'zam / abu'l-muzaffar / Ibrahim. A scarce variety and a nice collection!
Edited by Kushanshah
04/09/2018 04:30 am
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 Posted 04/09/2018  12:45 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add drnsreedhar to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Dear Kushanshah
Thank you for the post.You are right in pointing out the top line "saif". It is GZ-35; D-97
Edited by drnsreedhar
04/09/2018 12:46 pm
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 Posted 04/10/2018  4:51 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add drnsreedhar to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Ala ud daula Masud-III (1099-1115)

Masud, son of Ibrahim ruled for sixteen years without internal troubles. He invaded further into India and crossed river Ganges to return to Lahore with a large booty.









Legend: Adad - as sultan - ala al daula - Masud. Three dots are seen below the fourth line which could be part of "shah" on a fifth line.
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 Posted 04/14/2018  11:25 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add drnsreedhar to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Another scarce coin of Masud.
I had a little confusion to attribute this coin, between GZ-42 and 44 of G&G. The first line reads "sayid" on GZ-42 and "adad" on 44. The vertical stroke that precedes the last "dal"(adad) extends below the horizontal alignment of the line. I am more inclined to read it as "yeh". So I read it as "sayid" and attribute this one as GZ-42. But there is a vertical part of the legend on the right. That is not there on GZ-42. But GZ-43 shows such a part reading "adad". This coin shows something that I cannot read as "adad", but looks like "zaad" because what must be the open end of "a" is absolutely closed. I don't know if that makes sense. There is one more mystery to this. The part that reads "samantdeva" above the bull on the reverse is written somewhat differently on this specimen. So this GZ-42 specimen with a vertical legend on the right and a puzzling legend above the bull is something to work on. Anyone like Kushanshah who can contribute please do so.






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 Posted 04/24/2018  1:54 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add drnsreedhar to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Malik Arslan - 1116-1117

Malik, son of Masud III came to throne following his father.

His brother Bahram challenged his authority. After some initial success, Arslan lost to the joint army of Bahram and the Seljuk Kwarezmian ruler. He fled to Afghanistan area where he was tracked and killed.





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 Posted 04/25/2018  03:19 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add Palouche to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Great thread drnsreedhar.....

I'm intrigued with the legend above the bull on the GZ.S# 004-a coin..

How do you read it?

I'm seeing Sri Su ha....or is there a dot next to the last symbol? Sri su na..Goddess?

Paul
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 Posted 04/25/2018  1:56 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add drnsreedhar to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Dear Palouche
Your reading of "sri" is right. The letter "su" has a dot above. That makes it "sum". I am not sure about the letter "ha" and the next letter that could be either "la" or "na". Last letter is "va" and that precedes it is "de".(A curved line that precedes the letter "da" makes it "de"). Reading "deva" is certain. But what deva is uncertain!


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 Posted 05/12/2018  2:38 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add drnsreedhar to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Bahram - 1117-1157.AD
Obv: (first line off flan)- al sultan - al azam- Bahram shah.
Rev: Recumbent bull facing left. Arab numeral "8" on jhula.Sri Samant deva above.



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 Posted 05/20/2018  03:37 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add drnsreedhar to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Another issue of the same ruler with apparently less silver content.
Edited by drnsreedhar
05/20/2018 03:37 am
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