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Images That Inspired The Mint Master

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 Posted 01/18/2019  6:14 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add 1c5d7n5m to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Very interesting, tdziemia !

While we wait for a CCF expert to comment on the Benedetto Pistrucci design of the British Pound and Crowns, ..

... here is another rekenpenning from the Netherlands, suggesting another possibility: that the mint master did inspire the author of an emblem book. Below is a case for that idea, a copper rekenpenning with an image minted 15 years before the publication of first emblem book showing the same image:




here is the description of the obverse and reverse of the copper jeton



Rekenpenning Dordrecht 1569
'Triple Alliance between France, England and the Dutch Republic'
Dugniolle 3400 see http://www.dugniolle.com/dugniolle3301-3400.html
Obverse : Reliability and Endurance shake hands
Legend: FIDE ET CONSTANTIA

Reverse: Divine hand kills a sow with a stone,
Legend 1596 CAESA FIRMABANT FOEDERA PORCA (kill the sow to strengthen the alliance)

Since the Roman times it was a tradition to sacrifice a sow upon signing a peace agreement. So it is clear that this jeton (together with a couple of others from 1596) were made to celebrate the important agreement between the three states in the war against Spain.

I tried to find the emblem book that inspired the die engraver of the reverse. But found nothing before 1596. Yet, a very similar image to the reverse the coin first appears 15 years later the book "Nucleus Emblematum Selectissimorum" by Gabriel Rollenhagen (1583-1619), printed in 1611 in Arhem, Ghelders



https://archive.org/details/nucleus...ll/page/n127

While the hand/stone/sow image is similar, the legend around the emblem is different from that on the coin: SI SCIENS FALLO
Below the emblem is a short poem:

Si te fallo sciens, feriat me Iupiter ultor,
Dicebat pangens foedera Roma vetus.


Which could be feely translated into:

Settling an old Roman alliance.
But If I speak false, may the avenger of Jupiter kill me.

As explained before with the Ostrich Coin from 1607 (also represented in Gabriel Rollenhagen book of 1611) George Wither (1588-1667) reviewed Rollenhagen's emblems in his book of 1635, the hand/stone/sow emblem remains number 38:



https://publicdomainreview.org/coll...m-book-1635/

Followed on the same page by a nice English poem (first 8 lines)

When th'Ancients made a solemne League or Vow,
Their Custome was to ratifie it, thus;
Before their Idoll God, they slew a Sow,
And sayd aloud; So be it unto us.
Implying, that, if otherwise they did
Then had been vow'd; or, if within their Brest
A Fraudulent-Intention had beene hid,
They merited such Vsage, as that Beast.


Of course it is possible that a hand-stone-sow emblem in a book published before 1596 still exists (but I missed it) or existed and has been lost. Until these possibilities are documented it seems quite possible that the mint master inspired Rollenhagen. In fact all the emblems in his book are "coin" like with a circular legend. The Ostrich emblem (No 36 in his book) seems to be a second example of his admiration for the Jetons of the Netherlands.

So, if there was an true interaction between the mint master and author of emblem books, we could expect examples of inspiration that went in the two directions.




Pillar of the Community
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 Posted 01/20/2019  09:00 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add 1c5d7n5m to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
extra addition to the Rollenhagen (1611)//Withers (1635) connection:

Zacharias Heyns complemented the Emblemata and Latin Poems from Rollenhagen in 1615 by very nice and amusing translations into Dutch in the style of the Renaissance Sonnet with quatrain verse

today open access in electronic form:
https://www.dbnl.org/tekst/heyn003e.../colofon.php

here are Heyns last two lines of the Ostrich Poem

36. Nil penna, sed vsus.

Want t'is de penne niet hoe schoon sy is oft goet
Maer het gebruyck daer van, die ons wel leeren doet.


which I would translate into:

So it is not the pen, a beautiful device,
but using it that makes us learned and wise

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 Posted 01/20/2019  10:48 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add tdziemia to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Beyond the connection to tokens, this is really an interesting literary form of which I was never aware.
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 Posted 01/21/2019  5:09 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add 1c5d7n5m to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply

Quote:
Beyond the connection to tokens, this is really an interesting literary form of which I was never aware.


thanks for your comment
until a few months ago, I did not realize that this connection between jetons and emblems existed, and I can't find any literature about this connection

so it is a nice and new adventure



From Gelderland to the Brussels, the capital of the Spanish Netherlands; we advance a few years


1630 Rekenpenning issued in Brussels reference Dugniolle 3856

I do not have something better than a rather worn piece, picked up for a small price - but a little piece of copper that is still useful to prolong (perhaps already boring and tedious) thread

obverse: Crowned snake biting its tail, forming circle surrounding a bright six pointed star
Legend: 16 head 30 FATO PRVDENTIA MAIOR (prudence is stronger than fate)

reverse: Coat-of-arms of Johan Francois Fourneau, Lord of Kruikenburg
Legend: POST NVBILA PHOEBVS (after rain comes sunshine)



As for the Ostrich Rekenpenning (1607) and the hand/stone/sow Rekenpenning (1596) the obverse (image and legend) connects very well to the Emblem book of Gabriel Rollenhagen (1611) mentioned already a few times before:

https://archive.org/details/nucleus...ll/page/n175

We see again the crowned snake encircling the bright six pointed star
the legend FATO PRVDENTIA MAIOR is identical



Below the emblem is a brief poem explaining the idea connected to the engraving:

Adverso sapiens FATO PRVDENTIA MAIOR
Arte malum quisquis corrigit ille sapit


Which was translated by Withers (1635) as follows:
Let none despaire of their Estate
For, Prudence, greater is, than Fate.




https://archive.org/details/collect...ithe/page/74

The last 10 lines of Withers poem further explain the ideas connected to this emblem:

The Starres, and many other things, incline
Our nat'rall Constitutions, divers wayes;
But, in the Soule, God plac'd a Power-divine,
Which, all those Inclinations, overswayes.
Yea, God, that Prudence, hath infus'd, by Grace,
Which, till Selfe-will, and Lust, betrayes a man,
Will keepe him firmely, in that happy place,
From whence, no Constellation move him can.
And, this is that, whereof I notice take,
From this great Starre, enclosed by a Snake


The idea's evoked by the jeton and the emblem are strong and universal. In that sense, it does not matter that we are unaware of the exact historical facts that made Johan Francois Fourneau decide to use this emblem. Was it personal bad luck? Or did Fournau have in mind the capture of s'Hertogenbosch which was a major event in 1629?

No matter what history - the idea still matters - and it can hit any of us from behind, suddenly and fiercely.

The reverse of the coin is also connected to emblemata
POST NVBILA PHOEBVS is embleme 82 of Rollenhagen, but only the legends are the same as the coin has the coat-of-arms of the Fourneau family.



It cannot be done otherwise than to finish this post by the nice words of Zacharias Heyns (1615)

Nae quellingh en verdriet verdruckingh ende lijden
Komt eyndelijcken weer verquickingh en verblijden.


after sorrow, torture, grief and pain,
sweet return of joy - we can smile again

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Pillar of the Community
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 Posted 01/22/2019  5:17 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add tdziemia to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
Those linkages between the emblem books and tokens of that era continue to fascinate with how closely the design of one has followed the other!

I will go back to the question posed earlier about the image of St. George on the Engliush sovereign, reproduced here for the first year of issue, 1817 (image from CoinArchives).


I have looked for a representation of St. George in art that may have inspired Benedetto Pistrucci, the engraver, to produce this specific representation of St. George, but without luck. Indeed, this article from The Royal Mint https://www.royalmint.com/discover/...o-pistrucci/ also suggests Pistrucci intentionally took an innovative approach, rather than copy traditional forms.
I have however, posted representations of the Roman god of war Mars from the ancient, Renaissance and neoclassical (late 18th century) eras that have strong similarities to Pistrucci's depiction of the figure of St. George.
Historical events might also support a linkage to the god of war. The British victory over Napoleon at Waterloo was less than a year old when Pistrucci received the commission for the new sovereign design. Why not use imagery celebrating a victorious Britain? A laureate bust of the king, and a Mars-like personification of Great Britain's patron saint? An added coincidence: Pistrucci's employer, William Wellesley Pole, was the older brother of the Duke of Wellington, who was credited with the British victory!

Regardless of whether this supposition is on target or not, Pistrucci's design turned out to be one that influenced other artists, like the example upthread of 1c5d of Rollenhagen's ostrich. Here is an illustration, and a sculpture of St. George executed 70 years after Pistrucci's sovereign, by Joseph Boehm (who is known in numismatic circles for the design of the QUeen VIctoria Jubilee bust). In both cases, Boehm has based his depiction of St. George on Pistrucci's rather than the traditional forms for George:

Edited by tdziemia
01/22/2019 5:41 pm
Pillar of the Community
Belgium
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 Posted 01/23/2019  4:34 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add 1c5d7n5m to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply

Quote:
Pistrucci's design turned out to be one that influenced other artists


I agree that this is an interesting and convincing case for the idea that the image on the coin inspired other forms of art

here is another example:


This is the emblem of the French city of Nīmes: a crocodile chained to a palm tree. You can see it everywhere in Nīmes and this example is part of the iron gate of the City Hall. According to
https://nimesnotes.wordpress.com/20...em-of-nimes/
the modern emblem dates back to 1535, when king Franēois I gave Nīmes a new coat of arms to replace an old one with a bull on a red surface.

But the connection of this emblem to Nīmes, a Roman city formerly called Colonia Nemausus, is much older. Here is one example of an As of Nimes, minted between 28 BC and 15 AD to celebrate the victory of Emperor Augustus (battle of Actium in Egypt - 31 BC) over Cleopatra and Marc Anthony. The reverse shows the crocodile chained to a palm tree; COL NEM indicates the origin of Nīmes



source : http://www.coinproject.com/siteimag...S_ric158.jpg

quite a few other examples are seen here, very interesting coins
https://www.coinarchives.com/a/resu...ile+augustus

the case of the Roman coins inspired no one less than Claude Paradin. I mentioned him before in this thread http://goccf.com/t/336420&whichpage=3#2884341). In the same book Devises heroļques (1557) on page 68 we see the familiar crocodile chained to the familiar palm tree.



In the French text below the emblem, Paradin describes the Roman coins and their connection to the victory over Egypt: "Il se trouve de la monnaie antique battue en cuivre ......

see https://www.emblems.arts.gla.ac.uk/...d=sm816-p068 as the story continues on page 69; (Paradin is not entirely correct about the meaning of COL NEM)

Should it surprise us that the humanists of the 16th century, artists who helped creating the renaissance, studied (and perhaps collected) Roman coins ?
Clearly, Claude Paradin was inspired by emblem-like pictogram he saw on a Roman coin that contained a story.

So the inspiration question becomes something like this
antique coins => emblem books => renaissance coins
Edited by 1c5d7n5m
01/23/2019 4:51 pm
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 Posted 01/24/2019  4:45 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add tdziemia to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
We seem to have a fondness for reptiles here ...
The tortoise of FESTINA LENTE, the dragon of St. George, snake FATO PRUDENTIA MAIOR, and now the crocodile of Nimes


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 Posted 01/24/2019  4:57 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add 1c5d7n5m to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
.... and the Ostrich, which is a dinosaur
we made a nice zoo
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 Posted 01/25/2019  09:24 am  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add tdziemia to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply

Quote:
So the inspiration question becomes something like this
antique coins => emblem books => renaissance coins


The parallel for the British sovereign I have proposed, then, goes something like this:
antique sculpture + medieval art => neoclassical coin

But Mars also appeared on Roman coins. This nice summary includes examples of Mars on Roman coins as "Victor"/subduer/"Pacifier": http://www.forumancientcoins.com/mo...se_mars.html

So another option for the path of Pistrucci's inspiration could even have been
antique coin + medieval art => neoclassical coin
Edited by tdziemia
01/25/2019 09:38 am
Pillar of the Community
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 Posted 01/25/2019  6:04 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add 1c5d7n5m to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
great to see some general trends of mechanisms; perhaps other examples can be found

in the mean time I need to make an update for
Rekenpenning Dordrecht 1596 Dugniolle 3400
'Triple Alliance between France, England and the Dutch Republic'

there is an older emblem preceding the production of the coin:
Claude Paradin Devises heroļques (1557) page 80

https://www.emblems.arts.gla.ac.uk/...d=sm816-p080

the emblem book of Paradin was a rich source for jeton makers


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 Posted 02/05/2019  5:38 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add 1c5d7n5m to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
One more example:



on the left another emblem (#104) of Claude Paradin's Devises Heroļques (1557)
on the right a 1599 Token (rekenpenning) issued in Dordrecht, (Netherlands) to commemorate the expedition of Admiraal Van der Does who captured St Thomas, a stronghold of Spain.
Reference: Dugn.3472; vLoon I 519 - see Dugniolle online : http://www.dugniolle.com/dugniolle3401-3500.html

the 16th century ships are different, Paradin pictures a mercantile vessel, the Dutch jeton shows a war ship with canon ports
the motto is identical EN ALTERA QUAE VEHAT ARGO (look: another Argo to carry this crew)

a magnificent silver variant of my more modest copper jeton is part of the collection of the Royal Museums Greenwich: http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collec...s/37501.html

on the Museums webpage is a great description of the historical background of the token:


Quote:
The mythological imagery compares Admiral Van der Does to ancient Jason of the Golden Fleece with his ship The Argo. Pieter van der Does was a Dutch admiral (1562-1599) during the Dutch-Spanish Eighty Years' War (1568-1648). In 1599 he left for a long expedition to Brazil but not before attacking the Spanish fleet and army on several occasions. He was ordered by Maurice, Prince of Orange, to weaken the Spanish as much as possible. He first tried to attack the Spanish at the Spanish-Portuguese coast but did not succeed. He sailed further south to the Spanish controlled Canaries where he seized Las Palmas. The islands were of strategic importance since they were a very important hub to the America's. Unfortunately, he could not hold the city and island for more then 2 days, and he decided to head first to Brazil where he bought large volumes of wood and sugar. On his return he sailed via Cape Verde and conquered the island of St. Thomas (Sćo Tomé) on the Westcoast of Africa, a Spanish controlled island as well. 100 canons, many crates with sugar, ivory and linnen were taken. Shortly after he got very ill together with 1,000 of his men and died two weeks later of probably the plague. After his death this token was ordered to be issued to commemorates Van der Does his achievements.


Paradin in his poem below emblem #104
https://www.emblems.arts.gla.ac.uk/...d=sm816-p104
uses the same mythological idea of the Argo and its famous crew to make the point that (1) the French were outstanding sailors, rulers of the seas and (2) that probably the French are descendants from the people of Troy who escaped by ship when the city was sacked.

Together we are looking at a rather chauvinistic emblem both for the French and for the Dutch variant
Edited by 1c5d7n5m
02/05/2019 5:41 pm
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 Posted 02/06/2019  1:55 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add jbuck to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
As always, a very interesting look into the influences on coinage.
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 Posted 02/25/2019  5:04 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add 1c5d7n5m to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
waiting for other ideas
here is another "Festina Lente" from Wolf Laufer
recent acquisition

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 Posted 04/09/2019  5:27 pm  Show Profile   Bookmark this reply Add 1c5d7n5m to your friends list Get a Link to this Reply
I found another piece of the Johan Alewijn jeton discussed on a previous page http://goccf.com/t/336420&whichpage=3#2888607)

but they are not identical at all !

new piece

previously posted piece


the upper jeton has inner circles, and on the reverse a rose and interpunction in the legend

Dugniolle mentions both variants as
Upper piece Dugniolle 3796b
Lower piece Dugniolle 3796
http://www.dugniolle.com/dugniolle3701-3800.html
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