There are lots of ways to distinguish the different types of doubling, but here are a few of the key ones:
1. A doubled die will almost always leave devices that are enlarged, fattened, thickened or appear somewhat distorted.
2. Machine Doubling
generally leaves flat, shelf like areas next to the devices and reduces the size of the device.
3. Deterioration in the die, especially the kind in these photos, will show the appearance of movement towards the rim of the coin (hence the striations on the interior of the letters) and will reduce the size of the devices.
Think of the difference between a doubled die and Machine Doubling
like this(WARNING!! OVERSIMPLIFICATION COMING UP!):
Put your hand into wet cement and pull it out. Nice image, right? Now put it into the cement again, except 1/4 inch to the right of the previous spot. See how it looks like everything is slightly bigger but if you look closer at the finger tips you can see they've been "doubled"?
That's a doubled die.
Put your hand into the wet cement in a new spot and while pressing it in move your hand to the right 1/4 inch and then pull it out. Do you see how you've created a flat area between where the impression started and where you pulled your hand out? That's Machine Doubling
One happens in the actual die that makes the coin but leaves evidence of it's existence on the coin and the other happens when the coin moves as it is being struck.
The best place online to learn about errors is easily http://www.error-ref.com/
They explain the entire coin making process and show virtually every type of error that can be made. (If you spend more than 20 minutes on this website your definitely an error coin geek!)
Apologies for the length of the response and hope it helps.