Numismatic Glossary - E

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E
Mintmark for the cities of: Tours (French coins), Dresden (German coins 1872-1887), Muldenhutten (German and East German coins from 1887).
EAC
Short for Early American Coppers
eagle
A gold coin with a face value of ten dollars. Along with the dollar, this was the basis of the U.S. currency system from 1792 until 1971. No U.S. gold coins were struck for circulation after 1933, and all gold coins issued prior to that time were recalled from circulation.
ear
An area of certain coins that is important to the strike. (i.e. The hole in the ear of the Standing Liberty quarter is a necessary component of a Full Head designation.)
Early American Coppers (Club)
A club or society to advance the study of pre-1857 United States copper coinage including Colonials. Many members specialize collecting large cents by Sheldon numbers.
Ecu
A late mediaeval French gold coin, and later a large, silver, dollar-sized predecimal French coin, issued from 1642 up to the French Revolution. The name derives from the French word for "shield", because a coat of arms featured on the reverse. It was also the common nickname of the 5 franc coin which replaced it.
ECU
Short for "European Currency Unit". When a unified European coinage was first mooted in 1979, "ECU" was it's working name until a more formal name could be decided upon; "euro" was eventually chosen for the name. Meanwhile, several unofficial and semi-official "medallic coins" were struck by several countries, denominated in ECUs.
ED
Short for environmental damage.
edge
The third side of a coin. It may be plain, reeded, or ornamented – with lettering or other elements raised or incuse.
edge device
A group of letters or emblems on the edge of a coin. Examples would be the stars and lettering on the edge of Indian Head eagles and Saint-Gaudens double eagles.
EF-40
This is for "Extremely Fine' (the grade) and "40" (the numerical designation of the grade). Also called XF-40. About 90% of the original detail is still evident and the devices are sharp and clear.
EF-45
This is for "Extremely Fine" (the grade) and "45" (the numerical designation of the grade). Also called XF-45. About 95% of the original detail is still evident and the devices are sharp and clear.
electrotype
A duplicate coin created by the electrolytic method, in which metal is deposited into a mold made from the original. The obverse and reverse metal shells are then filled with metal and fused together – after which the edges sometimes are filed to obscure the seam.
Electrum
A naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver. The earliest coins in the Western world were struck from this metal in Lydia, in what is now western Turkey, where nuggets of electrum occur naturally.
elements
For numismatic condition purposes, the various components of grading. In other numismatic contexts, this term refers to the various devices and emblems seen on coins.
Eliasberg
Short for Louis E. Eliasberg, Sr. who was the only collector to assemble a complete collection of United States coins. Thus, the Eliasberg pedigree on a particular coin is held in the highest numismatic esteem.
emission sequence
The order in which die states are struck. Also, the die use sequence for a particular issue.
engraver
The person responsible for the design and/or punches used for a particular numismatic item.
envelope toning
A term applied to toning that results from storage mainly in 2 x 2 manila envelopes; most paper envelopes contain reactive chemicals.
environmental damage
Corrosion-effect seen on a coin that has been exposed to the elements. This may be minor, such as toning that is nearly black, to major - a coin found in the ground or water which has severely pitted surfaces. PCGS does not grade coins with environmental damage.
Equilaterally Curved Heptagon
The technical name for the seven-sided shape with rounded edges and corners, often used on coinage by countries which desired to use a distinctive shape to certain denominations, but one which would still work easily in vending machines. The diameter of an equiulaterally curved heptagon is the same, no matter which angle the coin is rotated at, allowing for a narrow tolerance in a vending machine slot. First used on the British 50 pence coin, now in use in countries all over the world.
eroded die
Synonym for "worn die."
error
A numismatic item that unintentionally varies from the norm. Ordinarily, overdates are not errors since they were done intentionally while other die-cutting "mistakes" are considered errors. Double dies, planchet clips, off-metal strikings, etc. also are errors.
Escudo
A predecimal gold Spanish and Portuguese coin. The name derives from the Spanish (and Portuguese) word for "shield", and so related to the French "ecu". When Portugal became a republic in 1911, the escudo became the primary currency unit of Portugal and many of it's colonies. Portugal now uses the euro; the only former colony of Portugal to still have the escudo as it's primary currency unit is Cape Verde.
Euro
The primary monetary unit of the Eurozone, a monetary union within the European Union. Is is divided into 100 cents, also known as eurocents. It formally took over from the ECU as the electronic common currency of the European Union in 1999 and was first introduced as circulating coins and notes in 2002. Not all countries in the European Union use the euro; some choose not to, others do not have a sufficiently robust economy to meet the stringent entry requirements.
Evasion
A counterfeit coin, deliberately designed to be close enough to a genuine coin to pass a casual inspection (or to fool somebody illiterate) but with distinctly different legends and inscriptions, such that if a manufacturer of evasions were arrested for counterfeiting, he could plead not guilty, on the grounds that his "souvenir medals" were sufficiently different in design from coinage.
Extra Fine
Alternate form of Extremely Fine.
Extremely Fine
The grades EF40 and 45. This grade has nearly full detail with only the high points worn, the fields rubbed often with luster still clinging in protected areas.
Extremely High Relief
The 1907 double eagle issue by Augustus Saint-Gaudens that had such medallic depth that multiple blows from a powerful press were required to fully bring up the detail. Because of this difficulty, the Mint engraver lowered the design resulting in the High Relief, which again was lowered to create the familiar Standing Liberty double eagle, or Saint, as to which they are commonly referred.
eye appeal
The element of a coin's grade that "grabs" the viewer. The overall look of a coin.
Eyrir
The fractional currency unit of Iceland. The plural is "aurar". There are 100 aurar to a krona.

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