Numismatic Glossary - U

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U
Mintmark for the city of Turin on French coins, during the occupation of northern Italy 1812-1813.
Ultra High Relief
Alternate name for the Extremely High Relief.
ultra rarity
Term used for a coin or other numismatic item that is represented by only a few examples.
Unc
Short for uncirculated.
Uncia
The smallest denomination ancient Roman coin. The name is Latin for "ounce"; originally, the uncia weighed 1 Roman ounce of copper. There were 12 uncia to the as.
Uncirculated
Term to indicate a coin or numismatic item that has never been in circulation, a coin without wear. See "Brilliant Uncirculated," "Mint State," and "new."
underbidder
The individual or entity that executed the bid preceding the winning bid. Close, but no cigar.
Unitary
A monetary system where the primary monetary unit has no fractional monetary units. The Vanuatu vatu is an excellent example. The Japanese yen and the French Pacific franc are also de facto unitary systems, although they have theoretical fractional units which have long been rendered obsolete by inflation.
Universal Rarity Scale
A collectibles rarity information scale developed in 1998 by 21 major collectibles experts in order to both define rarity within their individual markets and allow collectors and dealers from different collectibles markets to more easily communicate with one another. The Universal Rarity Scale is a 10 point scale. The least rare collectible items are those where more than 10,000 examples are estimated to exist. These items are designated "UR1" and are described as "readily available." The rarest items are those where only one example is known to exist. These rarities are designated "UR10" and are described as "unique."
Upset
A mint error which occurs when a coin has been struck with rotated dies. The difference in angle between an upset coin and a "normal" one is measured in degrees. An angle of less than 15 degrees is not considered to be a major mint error.
Upsetting Mill
A machine that raises the outer rim on a planchet prior to striking. Upsetting ensures that the rims are properly formed during striking.
URS
Short for Universal Rarity Scale.
Used
Term to describe a coin that has light to heavy wear or circulation.

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