Numismatic Glossary - G

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G
Mintmark for the cities of: Poitiers (French coins to 1771), Geneva (French coins minted during the French occupation of that city, 1813-14), Karlsruhe (German coins), Guanajuato (Spanish-Mexican coins)., Grenada (Spanish coins).
G-4
This is for "Good" (the grade) and "4" (the numerical designation of the grade). The major details of the coin will be worn flat. Minor wear into the rims is allowable, but the peripheral lettering will be nearly full.
G-6
This is for "Good" (the grade) and "6" (the numerical designation of the grade). A higher grade (i.e., less worn) than a G-4 coin. The rims will be complete and the peripheral lettering will be full.
GA
Mintmark for the city of Guadalajara (Spanish-Mexican coins). The "A" is normally smaller than the "G".
galvano
The large metal relief used in the portrait lathe from which a positive reduction in steel, called a hub, is made.
GC
Mintmark for the city of Guadelupe y Calvo on Mexican coins.
Gem
Adjectival description applied to Mint State and Proof-65 coins. It also is used for higher grades and as a generic term for a superb coin.
Gem BU
Short for Gem Brilliant Uncirculated.
Gem Unc
Short for Gem Uncirculated.
Gem Uncirculated
The adjectival equivalent of Mint State 65 or 66.
Ghosting
When the outline of the design on one side of the coin appears faintly, in reverse, on the other side. It occurs most commonly on coins which are relatively thin compared to their diameter, and have relatively high relief. British pennies of Edward VII and George V are particularly susceptible to ghosting. Not to be confused with a die clash or brockage, which can create superficially similar effects.
Go (mintmark)
Mintmark for the city of Guanajuato on Mexican coins.
Gobrecht Dollar Facts and History
Gobrecht
Short for "Gobrecht dollar."
Gobrecht Dollar Facts and History
Gobrecht dollar
The silver dollars dated 1836, 1838, and 1839 struck in those years and restruck later (some 1836-dated coins were struck in 1837). These are named for their designer, Christian Gobrecht, Chief Engraver from 1840 to 1844 but defacto engraver when William Kneass suffered his stroke in 1835.
gold
Obviously, the precious metal. Also, slang for any United States gold issues.
gold commemorative
Any of the eleven commemorate coins struck in gold from 1903 until 1925. Also, any of the modern United States commemorative gold issues, sometimes called modern gold commems.
gold dollar
The small coins of one dollar denomination struck from 1849 until 1889.
Good
The adjective corresponding to the grades G-4 and G-6. Coins in these grades usually have little detail but outlined major devices. On some coins, the rims may be worn to the tops of some letters.
Gourde
The primary currency unit of Haiti; there are 100 centimes to the gourde.
GPA
This refers to the Grade Point Average of a PCGS Set Registry set. If a set is unweighted the GPA is figured by adding up the grades of each coin and dividing the sum by the number of coins in the set. If a set is weighted (and someday all of the sets will be weighted) then the rarity of the coins is also factored into the equation.
grade
The numerical or adjectival condition of a coin.
grader
An individual who evaluates the condition of coins.
grading
The process of numerically quantifying the condition of a coin.
Greek Imperial
Another term for Roman provincial coinage, issued by cities under Roman rule for local use rather than as Empire-wide currency. One of the most complex and least studied series of classical ancient coins.
Gresham's law
Gresham's law is an economic principle that states: "When a government overvalues one type of money and undervalues another, the undervalued money will leave the country or disappear from circulation into hoards, while the overvalued money will flood into circulation."
Greysheet
Slang for Coin Dealer Newsletter.
Greyside
Related to the term "darkside", though obviously not quite as "dark". In the context of US coin collectors, it refers to Canadian coins.
Groat
An old English (and later British) coin, valued at four pence. The name means "large", because the original groats were substantially larger than any other coin ever seen in England. Groats were issued from the 1300's up until decimalization, and continue to appear in the Maundy coinage.
Groschen
A medium-sized mediaeval European silver coin, the German equivalent of "groat". Also the former fractional currency of Austria, prior to joining the euro.
Grosz
The minor currency unit of Poland; there are 100 groszy to a zloty. The name derives from the "groschen", an old German coin which circulated in Poland.
Guarani
The primary currency unit of Paraguay since 1943, named after a local native tribe.
Guilder
The former primary currency unit of the Netherlands, before conversion to the euro. The Dutch name for the unit was "gulden", and "florin" was sometimes also used as an unofficial nickname. There were 100 cents to the guilder. The Netherlands Antilles still uses a local form of this currency.
Guinea
A British gold coin, valued at 21 shillings or 1 pound 1 shilling. The name derives from the region of Africa where much of 18th century Britain's gold came from. The "spade guinea" was the final form of this coin, issued up to 1813 when it was replaced by the sovereign. The basic design was subsequently copied for many British counters and jetons.
Gun Money
Token coinage issued by the exiled claimant the British throne, James II, while in Ireland. The tokens were modeled on the English silver coinage of the day, only they were made of gun-metal (brass), hence the name. James promised to exchange the tokens for silver coin should he reclaim the throne; unfortunately, he failed to do so. The tokens are unusual in bearing the month, as well as year, of issue.

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